West Bengal Class 12 Political Science Syllabus: Class 12 West Bengal Board is a crucial phase in a student’s academic journey, as it marks the culmination of their secondary education in the state of West Bengal, India. Governed by the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education (WBCHSE), this board is known for its comprehensive curriculum and rigorous evaluation system.
The Class 12 examinations conducted by the board cover various streams such as Science, Commerce, and Arts, offering students a diverse range of subjects to choose from. The board is committed to providing quality education and fostering the intellectual, social, and ethical development of its students. With its emphasis on both theoretical knowledge and practical skills, Class 12 West Bengal Board equips students with the necessary tools to pursue higher education or enter the professional world with confidence.
West Bengal Class 12 Political Science Syllabus
Before delving into the preparation for the Class 12 Political Science exam in West Bengal, students must familiarize themselves with the official syllabus provided by the West Bengal Board. This syllabus, accessible on the board’s official website, comprises all the units and topics that will be covered in the subject.
By going through the syllabus, students can effectively plan their study schedule and focus on the essential areas to score well in the exams. The West Bengal Board exams for Class 12 are scheduled to take place in March 2021. Once students have completed the syllabus, it is advisable for them to practice with the Class 12 model papers, which can be instrumental in clearing any doubts and enhancing their performance in the actual examination.
For further updates and detailed information, students can refer to the official website. Properly following the syllabus and dedicating ample time to practice will undoubtedly contribute to a successful and confident performance in the Political Science exam.
Chapter 1. International Relations
Chapter 1 of International Relations introduces students to the fundamental aspects of the discipline. It begins by exploring the meaning of International Relations and the evolution of this field as a distinct academic subject. The chapter also covers some key concepts that are vital in understanding the dynamics of international politics.
First, it delves into the concept of power, elucidating its meaning and various components that influence states’ behavior in the global arena. Next, it focuses on “National Interest” and its crucial role in shaping a country’s foreign policy decisions. Understanding a state’s national interests is essential for comprehending its actions and interactions with other nations.
Lastly, the concept of “Globalisation” is thoroughly examined, highlighting its meaning and the profound impact it has on the sovereignty of nation-states. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, globalisation has significant implications for state sovereignty, blurring traditional boundaries and posing both challenges and opportunities for countries on the international stage. By delving into these key concepts, students gain a solid foundation for further exploration of the complex and ever-changing landscape of International Relations.
Chapter 2. International Relations in the post-second world war period
Chapter 2 of International Relations delves into the significant developments in the post-Second World War period, particularly focusing on the Cold War. The chapter begins by explaining the meaning of the Cold War and delving into the causes that led to its origin. The rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, fueled by ideological, political, and strategic differences, created a state of geopolitical tension and hostility that shaped the global landscape for decades.
The chapter then traces the evolution of the Cold War and how it influenced various regions and international affairs. Amid the Cold War’s dominance, there emerged challenges to the bipolar world order. One prominent movement was the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought to maintain independence and distance from the two superpowers, gaining relevance in the context of the Cold War.
Eventually, the world witnessed a transition from bipolarity to unipolarity, where the collapse of the Soviet Union led to the emergence of the United States as the sole superpower on the global stage. These transformations have had far-reaching implications for international politics and continue to impact contemporary global affairs. Understanding the complexities of this post-World War II era is crucial to comprehending the roots of modern geopolitical dynamics.
Chapter 3. Foreign Policy
Chapter 3 focuses on the concept of Foreign Policy, exploring its meaning and significance in the context of international relations. It delves into how countries formulate and implement strategies to engage with the global community effectively. In this chapter, the basic features of India’s foreign policy are highlighted, shedding light on the guiding principles that shape the nation’s approach to international affairs.
India’s foreign policy is characterized by its commitment to non-alignment, promoting peace and cooperation, and pursuing mutually beneficial relationships with other nations. The chapter also examines India’s engagement with the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), a regional organization aimed at fostering cooperation and development among South Asian countries.
India’s involvement in SAARC underscores its commitment to regional stability and collaboration. By analyzing India’s foreign policy and its interactions with SAARC, students gain insights into the complexities of diplomacy and the critical role of nations in shaping global politics and regional dynamics.
Chapter 4. U.N.O.
Chapter 4 delves into the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.), exploring its origin, objectives, and underlying principles. As one of the most significant international bodies, the U.N.O. was established after World War II to promote peace, security, and cooperation among nations and prevent future conflicts.
The chapter sheds light on the major organs of the U.N.O., with a particular focus on the General Assembly, the principal deliberative body where all member states have representation and discuss key global issues. The Security Council, another crucial organ, is responsible for maintaining international peace and security, with five permanent members holding veto power. Additionally, the chapter explores the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), which addresses economic, social, and environmental challenges.
The second part of the chapter discusses the U.N.’s involvement in peacekeeping operations, a vital aspect of its mandate. These peacekeeping missions are aimed at restoring stability and resolving conflicts in various regions around the world. By understanding the U.N.O.’s structure and its peacekeeping efforts, students gain insights into the organization’s role in promoting global peace and cooperation.
Chapter 5. Some Major Political Doctrines
Chapter 5 introduces students to some major political doctrines that have significantly shaped political thought and action throughout history. The first doctrine explored in this chapter is Liberalism, known for its emphasis on individual rights, limited government intervention, and the promotion of free markets and civil liberties. Liberalism advocates for a democratic system that respects the rule of law and protects individual freedoms.
The second doctrine, Marxism, is based on the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxism posits that society is divided into classes based on the ownership of the means of production, and it advocates for the establishment of a classless society through a revolution of the working class. Central to Marxism is the critique of capitalism and the pursuit of a socialist or communist state.
Lastly, the chapter delves into Gandhism, which draws inspiration from the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhism emphasizes the principles of non-violence (ahimsa) and truth (satya) as powerful means to bring about social and political change. The concept of Satyagraha, or non-violent resistance, is a cornerstone of Gandhism, promoting passive resistance to oppressive regimes. By exploring these major political doctrines, students gain a comprehensive understanding of diverse ideologies that have shaped political movements and governance worldwide.
Chapter 6. Organs of Government
Chapter 6 delves into the critical organs of government and the concept of the separation of powers, a fundamental principle in democratic governance. The chapter begins by explaining the concept of separation of power, which advocates dividing the functions of government among three distinct branches: the Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary.
The first part of the chapter explores the Executive branch, elucidating its functions, which include the political executive responsible for policy-making and the permanent executive, represented by the bureaucracy, responsible for implementing policies and administrating the government. Moving on to the Legislature, the chapter discusses its functions and structure, where countries may have either a unicameral or bi-cameral legislature. It also highlights the arguments for and against having a two-house system.
Lastly, the chapter examines the Judiciary and its crucial functions, which involve interpreting laws, resolving disputes, and safeguarding the constitution. The independence of the judiciary is emphasized, as it ensures the separation of powers is upheld and prevents the concentration of authority. Understanding the organs of government and their distinct roles is essential in comprehending the dynamics of democratic governance and the checks and balances that prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful.
Chapter 7. Executive in India
Chapter 7 provides an in-depth analysis of the executive branch in India, focusing on key positions and their respective powers and positions. The chapter commences with an exploration of the President, the ceremonial head of the country, whose election process and powers are outlined. While the President holds a prestigious position, executive powers largely reside with the Prime Minister.
The chapter then delves into the role of the Prime Minister, who is the head of the government, responsible for policy formulation, decision-making, and overall governance. Shifting focus to the state level, the chapter examines the position and powers of the Governor, who acts as the representative of the President in a state and performs several constitutional functions.
Lastly, the Chief Minister of a state is discussed, as the leader of the elected government, responsible for implementing policies and administering the state. Understanding the roles and powers of these key executive positions is crucial in comprehending the structure and functioning of India’s democratic system and its federal setup.
Chapter 8. Legislature in India
Chapter 8 provides a comprehensive examination of the legislature in India, focusing on its key components and functions. The chapter commences with an exploration of the Parliament, the supreme legislative body of the country. It discusses its composition, consisting of two houses – the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
The chapter highlights the functions of Parliament, including lawmaking, financial oversight, and the scrutinizing of the executive’s actions. It also explores the intricate relationship between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, where they play complementary roles in the legislative process. The role of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha is emphasized, as the Speaker presides over the proceedings, maintains order, and ensures fair debate.
Shifting focus to the state level, the chapter examines the State Legislative Assembly with a special reference to West Bengal, exploring its composition and functions in a similar manner to the national Parliament.
Lastly, the chapter delves into essential parliamentary procedures such as the Zero Hour, No-Confidence Motion, Cut Motion, and Adjournment Motion, each having its unique significance in the functioning of the legislature. Understanding the complexities of the Indian legislature is crucial for comprehending the democratic process and the mechanisms through which policies and laws are formulated and enacted.
Chapter 9. Judiciary in India
Chapter 9 provides a comprehensive insight into the judiciary in India, outlining the structure and functions of its key components. The chapter begins by focusing on the Supreme Court, the apex judicial body in the country. It elaborates on the composition of the Supreme Court, comprising a Chief Justice and other judges.
The chapter discusses the vital role of the Supreme Court in upholding the constitution, interpreting laws, and resolving disputes between the central and state governments and among states. Moving on, the chapter explores the High Courts, which are situated in various states and union territories. It delves into their composition and functions, including their jurisdiction over matters within their territorial boundaries.
The subordinate judiciary is also examined, outlining the structure of lower courts, such as district and sessions courts. These courts play a crucial role in delivering justice at the grassroots level. Lastly, the chapter discusses the alternative dispute resolution mechanisms of LokAdalat, which seeks to resolve disputes amicably, and the Consumer Court, which addresses consumer grievances efficiently. Understanding the various layers of the Indian judiciary and its multifaceted roles is essential to comprehend the rule of law and the administration of justice in the country.
Chapter 10. Local Self- Government
Chapter 10 sheds light on the vital aspect of Local Self-Government in India, focusing on both the rural and urban contexts. The chapter commences with an exploration of the rural system, which operates on a 3-tier Panchayat system. This system comprises the Gram Panchayat at the village level, the Panchayat Samiti at the block level, and the ZillaParishad at the district level.
The chapter delves into the composition and functions of each tier, emphasizing their roles in local governance, planning, and development. Additionally, it highlights the sources of income for these Panchayats, including grants from the central and state governments and revenue generated through local taxes and fees.
Shifting focus to the urban landscape, the chapter examines municipalities and corporations. It discusses their composition and functions, with municipalities catering to small urban areas and corporations handling larger cities. The chapter elucidates their responsibilities in areas such as infrastructure, sanitation, and public services.
It also highlights their sources of income, which include local taxes, user charges, and financial assistance from the state government. Understanding local self-government is vital in ensuring effective governance at the grassroots level and empowering communities to participate in decision-making processes that impact their lives directly.
Chapter 11. Project (Some Suggested Areas) (20 Marks)
Chapter 11 focuses on the project component of the course, providing students with suggested areas for their projects, each worth 20 marks. The first suggested area is conducting a survey and observation on the functioning of local governance bodies such as the Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti, ZillaParishad, Municipality, Borough Committee, and Ward Committee.
Students can delve into the roles, functions, decision-making processes, and the effectiveness of these bodies in addressing local issues and meeting the needs of the community. The second area suggested is exploring women’s participation in local-level politics. Students can research and analyze the representation of women in these local governance bodies, their roles, challenges, and the impact of their participation on decision-making and local development.
Lastly, if feasible, students may choose to study the functioning of the Legislative Assembly, observing its sessions, analyzing legislative processes, and understanding the role of legislators in lawmaking and governance. Undertaking a project in any of these areas allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge, conduct field research, and gain practical insights into the workings of the Indian political system at the grassroots level.